Critique of Archaeological Reason
11. Data handling

Style of output

Laerke Recht – February 2017

     Below are guidelines to make sure the style is consistent throughout the bibliography.
     The examples can be copied and then your own information entered (you must open the html version of the file to do this).

Go to:
          Chapter in book
          HTML References


  • in bold
  • First author: Last name, first name
               Example: Renfrew, Colin
  • Subsequent authors: first name last name
               Example: Agnew, Neville and Janet Bridgland
               Example: Costa, Stefano; Anthony Beck, Andrew Bevan and Jessica Ogden
  • Add as full names as possible
  • If several authors, add all in the bibliography, but not in notes and references (see below).

  • Book

  • Title in bold italics
  • Add (ed.) or (eds.) in front if it is an edited book.
  • Add place of publication and publisher
  • Add any extra publication information
               Example, edition: 3rd edition
               Example, series: New Aspects of Antiquity
               Example, original title if not in English:
               Example, link to online version or pdf for download:

  • BOOK EXAMPLE [open html to copy-paste]

    Agnew, Neville and Janet Bridgland (eds.)
    2006 Of the Past, for the Future: Integrating Archaeology and Conservation
    Getty Publications: Los Angeles.
         This volume collects papers from the Fifth World Archaeological Congress, held in Washington D.C. (21-26 June 2003) and organized by the Getty Conservation Institute. On that occasion, Conservation was for the first time the major theme of an international archaeological conference, and many issues and practical examples on this topic were presented. Matters connected to Presentation were also discussed, being naturally connected to the main issue of the survival of the archaeological heritage in modern days. Throughout the papers, thus, the following themes appear: the role of stakeholders for decisions related to the care and use of sites and artifacts; the challenges facing the conservation of archaeological collections; mass tourism and its economic repercussion, technical responses to sites at risk; innovative approaches to site preservation; the question of management of archaeological sites. – [Stefania Ermidoro, February 2014]
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  • Title in bold and "quotation marks"
  • Add journal name in italics.
  • Add journal volume and issue where relevant
               Example: Archaeological Dialogues 18.1
  • Add page numbers
               Example: Archaeological Dialogues 18.1, pp. 18-26.
  • Add any extra publication information

  • ARTICLE EXAMPLE [open html to copy-paste]

    Carver, Geoff
    2011 "Reflections on the Archaeology of Archaeological Excavations"
    in Archaeological Dialogues 18.1, pp. 18-26.
         Carver provides a short discussion about the definition and history of archaeology and what it really is or is seen to be: contrary to common belief among archaeologists, excavation was not from the beginning or a core of the discipline, and 'archaeology' is by no means the same in every country. "The point is this: Kemble was arguing that his 'archaeology' was a science simply because its data could be classified, whereas we would now say that science comes with trying to explain such 'arrangements'." (p. 22). – [Laerke Recht, September 2014]
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    Chapter in book

  • Title in bold and "quotation marks"
  • Add book editors, first name - last name
  • Add book title in italics
  • Add place of publication and publisher
  • If a paper in a book that has a separate entry in the bibliography, add reference to this instead of the above information
  • Add page numbers

  • CHAPTER IN BOOK EXAMPLE [open html to copy-paste]

    Brown, Clifford
    2010 "Reflections on Metaarchaeology"
    in Philip Blosser and Thomas Nenon (eds.), Advancing Phenomenology. Essays in Honor of Lester Embree.
    Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 391-400.
         A lucid overview of Lester Embree's contributions to the relationship between archaeology and philosophy. The first part deals with Embree's philosophy of archaeology (pp. 393-398). Embree assigns a place or preminence to archaeology within the social sciences, considering it as «the most basic of the positive sciences». Brown notices a sense of inferiority in the archaeologists, who tend, partly because of the prevailing positivistic attitude, to consider exact sciences like physics as having a predominant position. More importantly, Embree develops a theory of archaeolgical cognition, through which he «analyze[s] the cognitive and epistemological basis of our understanding of the archaeological "record"» (p. 396). What Embree discusses, then, is the nature and limits of the inference. As Brown notes, this contrasts with post-processual relativism, as well as with that of «latter day archaeological phenomenologists» (p. 397). [The notion of "archaeological cognition" and its phenomenological justification serves as a sort of preliminary to the direction I pursue in this essay.] Embree explicitly rejects a hermeneutic approach to archaeology, but this is in terms of the (relativistic) hermeneutics associated with Hodder (p. 398).
         The second part deals with empirical studies of American theoretical archaeology (pp. 398-399). It is especially Embree's systematic and almost "ethnographic" approach in investigating the New Archaeology (or «American Theoretical Archaeology», as he called it) that retains Brown'a attention. The term metaarchaeology was introduced to refer to «secondary, reflective and non-substantive research». Embree's works in this area are work in progress towards his planned The Rise of American Theoretical Archaeology. – [Giorgio Buccellati, May 2014]
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    Costa, Stefano; Anthony Beck, Andrew Bevan and Jessica Ogden
    2013 "Defining and Advocating Open Data in Archaeology"
    in Earl et al. 2013, pp. 449-456.
         The authors explore the potential of Open Data in archaeology. Being digital is a prerequisite for open data; 'data'€™ is often placed in opposition to interpretation, but is here understood as archaeological data from all the processes involved. Open data means increased public availability and allows 'text-mining', increasing searchability. Added to this is the option of Linked Open Data, which would significantly add to inter-site relations and compatibility. – [Laerke Recht – January 2015]
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  • Title in bold with link directly to the website
  • Add author or owner in italics
  • Add date of last visit

  • WEBSITE EXAMPLE [open html to copy-paste]

    Symmetrical Archaeology
    2013 Directed by Timothy Webmoor and Christopher Witmore
    Last visited 27 May 2013
         Website introducing the idea of 'symmetrical archaeology', where archaeology is understood as properly being the 'science of things', which should aim for a symmetry between meaning and things. There are also many links to further discussions, the projects carried out and references to papers. – [Laerke Recht, May 2013]
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    HTML References

  • For each author or group of authors, include a references to the author at the top
               Example: <a name="Carver"></a>
               Example: <a name="Agnew&Bridgland"></a>
               Example: <a name="Costaetal"></a>
               Note that for more than two authors, add 'et al', instead of listing all
  • For each title, include a specific reference to that title by adding the year.
               Note: do NOT use spaces in references
               Example: <a name="Carver2011"></a>
  • If there are several titles in the same year for the same author(s), add a letter behind the year, starting with 'a'
               Example: <a name="Carver2011a"></a>
               Example: <a name="Carver2011b"></a>
  • When making your notes and adding the title to your authorship page, you should use these same references

  • Notes

  • Your entries should include references to notes, themes, synopses etc
  • These are found on the right-hand of the entry
  • Copy any of the examples above to use the same template, and remember to change the html references so they match your entry

  • Short abstracts

  • The abstract or short description of the contents appear below the bibliographical information
  • It should appear in small
  • Each paragrapgh should be indented
  • It should always end with your name in [square brackets], linked to your authorship page, and with the month and year when you entered the entry

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